Use of internet has become a normal day to day activity in the world. So much information is derived from the internet since it seems to have almost all the news and information. This has made internet innovation a very important and recognized procedure globally since it has provided the world with so much information and entertainment thus making it easier and cheap for individuals to attain information. The Internet is not only used to search information and ideas, it has also been proved as a faster and efficient means of communication worldwide. People from one country to another are able to share information fast and clear thus bonding freely and this has enhanced the social and cultural interaction among different communities (Berkun, 2010).
Internet innovation is one of the most unique and recognized inventions globally. This is because it has eased the work of man both physically and psychologically. Organizations and Institutions have welcomed the innovation with open arms since it has enabled the enhancement of business and easier means of research and development (M. AMIGOT, 2009). Use of internet has been highly recommended in schools and other learning institutions since it has highly improved the spread of skills and knowledge among the students. Internet use has made the students carry out their home work in a more improvised and easier way, compared to the earlier days when they had to use only the text books which lacked some of the important information. Students have become brighter, interactive and willing to carry out their studies since to them, use of internet also gives them a moment of enjoyment (Schewick, 2010).
Sometime back, the internet was a vague network of bulky computers used only by a diminutive community of researchers. Earlier, most computer devices were found in information technology centers or laboratories used for research with no one ever thinking that the internet innovation will provide such significant position in our society as it does today. Earlier, a personal computer connected by one global network seemed absurd and not so real to so many of us (Gates, 2000).
In the earlier days, activities such as transactions, message delivery and so many operations were slow to carry out and one used a lot of time and energy. Currently, the world just went to a turn of events since people no longer function in a brick-and-mortar economy. Nowadays, jobs can be performed anytime, anywhere as long as one can go online, thanks to internet innovation. In this research, we will get to learn how internet innovation has led to creation of new job opportunities worldwide. Through this innovation, the world has realized how essential it is to continue developing an environment that is conducive in terms of creating and saving jobs through use of technology (Gates, 2000). So many organizations have been created and formed, in order to invest in internet technology which is currently benefitting businesses at a very high rate. According to an article written by the broad band investors, internet innovation has had a serious impact on the consumer welfare, economic output and job creation. Innovation of internet has become such a powerful and compelling technology due to its wide spread in academics as a result of government sponsorship in so many countries around the world (Bui, 2005). The innovation has also become an effective factor to the private sector due to advancement and commercialization not forgetting its unique contribution in exchange of information. With internet, there is reliable operation of events with centralized management (Gates, 2000).
History of Internet Innovation
The History of internet innovation starts from nineteen fifty’s with the invention of computers. This began with communication between main frame computers and terminals which later led to introduction of point- to- point links between computers then innovation of packet switching. Examples of packet switchers included:
- Mark 1
- Merit Network
These were discovered in late nineteen sixty’s and early seventy’s using a number of protocols. For example, the APRANET led to growth of protocols for internet working where different networks were joined to form one networks (People History, 2004).
The concept of a global network of fully joined TCP/IP networks known as the internet emerged in nineteen eighty two when there was standardization of Internet Protocol Suite. The computer science net work was introduced in 1981 by the National Science foundation which led to expansion of APRANET (VERDICK.ORG, 2011). It was again expanded in nineteen eighty six when the U.S got access to the Super Computer sites provided by the Research and Education Organizations. Internet started to be provided commercially in nineteen eighty’s and ninety’s. After decommission of NSFNET, internet was fully commercialized, doing away with all the restrictions on internet use to carry public service. Since 1990s the internet has created a radical effect on the commerce, culture and rise of immediate communication through instant messaging, phone calls, two way interactive video calls and electronic mail (Gates, 2000).
Process of Internet Popularity
The web transformed the internet into a worldwide trend since its introduction in nineteen eighty at European centre for Nuclear Research. According to Tim Berners Lee, internet was originally formed to share statistics on nuclear physics (Plunkett, 2006). Luckily, the webs popularity spread among the researchers, learners and other internet enthusiasts thus creating a new industry to generate software and materials for the web. This emerging and growing creativity made the web more convincing for the users which encouraged more organizations to use internet access, and encouraged more individuals and business sectors to get linked to the internet. Recently in nineteen ninety four, only about five hundred websites were found worldwide, currently, the internet has close to three billion websites thus showing how popular use of internet has spread. The growth is continuing, thanks to introduction of cheaper computers, higher internet speed and superior software (French, 1999).
The Governments in so many countries have created good environment to its citizens thus encouraging the easier spread in internet services, and also enabling companies to bring their products to consumers at a high speed. Over the past few years, governments have found it rewarding to pass policies that give rapid growth in infrastructure thus making it possible to expose internet benefit to so many other people. These include creating ways of using broadband technologies and resisting the urge to ratify new regulations (Cortese, 2007).
Impact/Effect of Internet Innovation.
New technology has led to amplification of human potential. Today; technology innovation has transformed the world society and economy through invention of telephone, electricity, airplane and automobile thus making the world easily accessible to everyone (Taumi, 2002). Internet innovation has brought the same revolution effect thus enabling businesses and individuals to conquer cultural, geographical, economical and logistical barriers. Below, we discuss some of the impacts brought about by internet innovation:
Through the internet innovation, the world appears so small. Innovation of internet has proved to be a widely used means of communication among people. Individuals can communicate and exchange information immediately and across very long distances thus enabling people to participate in the economy despite where they are located. Different social sites such as face book and twitter have been introduced and largely welcomed globally and all these are due to some of the advantages of internet innovation. People from miles away are able to share ideas, pictures and opinions, thus making the world as one. Relations among countries and cultures have been highly improved due to use of internet (Morrison, 2011).
Before the internet, it was a bit difficult and expensive for individuals to get into contact and keep in touch with the relatives and friends globally. Today, communicating with a friend in china has become as easy and cheaper as communicating with a friend in a neighboring town since individuals nowadays use internet as a quicker and easier means of communication. Thousands of people have shared interests and therefore exchange information through email, websites and instant messages. Also, people with disabilities are encouraged to use internet to communicate with each other in order to overcome fears that prevent them from leading normal productive lives.
Impact on the Business sector
Today, the internet has become the centre of attraction to businesses. Since its innovation, new industries have emerged, existing ones have been totally transformed and the internet has therefore become a worldwide cultural trend. Through internet innovation, amazing things have been seen and yet there is more to come. According to Bill Gates, the world is only at the first light of internet age. The internet has had an insightful impact on the way we live, learn and work.
The internet has made the world look so simple since it has broken down the logistical barriers, thus presenting superior flexibility and influence in ways of carrying out business. Innovation of internet has shrunk down the distance and time, cut down complex business activities, and has enabled more effective partnership and contact, for example, a firm which is located in isolated rural place has the world in its market position. In connection with advanced productivity software, through the internet, workers use their knowledge and time more efficiently and focus on more productive errands. This has enhanced greater competition in the market industry, since through internet innovation; customers have also acquired the ability to become smarter in their day to day shopping in order to find the best products and services and at right prices (Attala, 1996).
This has empowered them, since before, the larger companies were monopolies, but lately, smaller companies have adapted technology like their leaders, thus providing the customer with quality products at competitive prices round the world. In the 21st century, internet technology has become an economic force enabling instant commerce around the globe. Large companies currently, maintain easier connection with their employees, partners and suppliers whereas smaller companies can find and maintain customers globally. Lately, internet innovation has encouraged companies in hiring knowledge workers from any part of the world, thus expanding the employment opportunities mostly for the people in America. This has given the developing countries an opportunity to become powerful by providing information technology to so many countries in the world. The internet innovation has thus enabled some budding nations to skip the industrial revolution and head straight to internet age.
Common standards such as use of a common language has enabled internet innovation become a success. Since internet language is universal and easily understood, businesses can therefore create services and products that make use of the internet. This has led to technological competition since to thrive in the internet, every business has to make its products and services look more attractive than those of the competitor and it’s only a few mouse clicks away (SB-IRC, 2007).
Effects on Security and Privacy.
Currently, well improved police department in the world welcomed use of technology since it has encouraged easier means to track down criminals. This is a process widely used by the FBI and the private detectives not forgetting government departments. Use of internet has greatly improved security though somehow tampering with privacy.
Lately, people are relying on the internet in sharing confidential and receptive information with necessary parties in regards to their medical basis, financial status, buying behaviors and preferences and also personal habits though in some cases there is leakage of this personal information. In most cases, many use the internet in secret in order to safeguard such important information. Internet innovation has led to regular use of credit cards thus making it an easier way of payment though it is not as safe as before the introduction of internet. Due to internet, private industries and many government institutions currently use private attractive technologies since it has proved to be the best way protects privacy. Though according to Alderman and Caroline Kennedy, it is not yet proved that this method is fully efficient. However, shielding personal privacy has become a major hindrance which must be taken care of with immediate effect so as to keep the internet striving forward.
Impact on Education.
Internet innovation has rendered a great and important effect in the education sector. Since its innovation, education has become easier and more enjoyable thus giving students morale in doing their assignments and breaking the monotony of books. Since innovation of internet, research and development projects have become easier to carry out with more reliable references and legal sources (OPPAPERS.COM, 2008). Students have earned advanced skills and knowledge since they go ahead to research on given topics by the teacher, to an extent of giving their trainer added information on topics. This has also enhanced educational group work among students of different schools in projects such as science congress, group discussions on specific subjects and environmental clubs.
These are some of the activities that have been encouraged among students, and since each want to outdo the other, they end up carrying thorough research from various books and most of all research from the internet. In the world of today, better employment and business projects are believed to be achieved by people with high quality education and knowledge, therefore, colleges and universities have put the innovation of technology especially use of internet in research as a number one priority so as to give their students quality and competitive education results.
Education online is growing widely and fast to keep pace with the internet innovations. Currently, a prevalent shortage of highly competent online teachers has been predicted. However, students can take an advantage of the retired teachers who have had the talent on the technology sector.
Recognized and focused universities of every kind have introduced essential courses in the web by use of pedestrian sometimes. Colleges and universities that have slowly and technically adapted to the internet way of doing their old job in a new technique have well made it where gaudy business types and large private schools have not (Education Week, 2011).
Negative Impact of Internet Innovation
Innovation of internet as discussed earlier contains so many positive effects. But also, these are some of the negative effects that came with internet. There is great concern from teachers and psychologist in regards to internet impact on the cognitive physical and social growth of children. These effects are discussed below:
Impact on Cognitive Effect
Internet provides information with no rules and regulations. Since the information found in the internet is uncontrolled and has no means of checking dependability and referring, children face the results of searching information from the internet since they do not differentiate between what is real and what is not real and are not able to test truth in practical world. So many educational problems have erupted among kids in school as a result of exposure to the internet. According to Professor James Collins, students who are getting a hard time in writing classes are directly plagiarizing their study projects. In addition, the informality known as proper in email communication is being spread and used in formal writings especially in high school student’s essays. These threats are considered negative to both younger children and college students. Lately, in a recognized university in New York, a large number of students dropped out of school most of whom were freshmen newcomers and this was due to increased access of computers and internet. It was learned that forty three percent of those who drop out stay up in the internet the whole night (VERDICK.ORG, 2011).
Impact on Physical Development.
Coordination with observation and social relations on impacts of manipulation is one of the traits that are highly emphasized on little children during growth stages. Growth experiences are essential to the budding concepts such as the way of communication and cause and effect affairs. No evidence has been stated that fundamental treatment generates the similar personal action and rational skills that appear from physical exploitation (Afuah, 2007)
Internet innovation brought about easier and quicker means of acquiring a large amount of information. Earlier, most cultures prevented the early child to acquire too much information by simplifying communication and sequencing data. Due to the fact that some adults give too much negative information, it is likely to confuse the children with undeveloped physical and cognitive configuration.
Impact on Social Development
Internet can enrich small generation and their learning institutions thus acting as a source of innovative and intellectual effort with others. However, it has shown that if abused, internet can prevent children from carrying out the required social activities including chores, homework and sharing useful time with friends and family. Michael A. Weinstein of Purdue University stated that those people who spend so much time in the internet will lose the ability, patience and skills to practice social relations in the corporal world and that the internet will increase the negative impact that television has already introduced in the society. Through all these negative impacts claimed to be introduced by the use of internet services, the community is in fear of in appropriate behaviors such as bias, hate, violence, profanity and pornography. The internet provides children with an easy target to access information and it allows unwanted messages to finding their way to under aged kids.
Parents feel that more words should be spoken due to the extent at which the effect of pornography has evaded the child development. Pornographic can be described as a generally erotic depictions projected to aggravate a sexual urge. Pornography does exist in different forms such as pictures, films, comics and videos and all these are found freely in the internet (VERDICK.ORG, 2011). It is easy to understand how child pornography troubles the child and destroys the inspiration of his/her childhood. It is impossible to establish the number of children implicated in pornography since it is an illegal hidden industry. Another negative impact is congestion. Since there are so many people using the network, there is occurrence of clogging especially when network competence reduces and this normally reduces the rate of individuals who are using it.
Internet innovation also brought about increased piracy in the society. Currently; original stars for movies and music are complaining and filing suites of not selling their videos since the internet has provided them prior the original launches. This has encouraged people to copy them direct from the net, thus creating loss of interest after the original launch.
Opportunities and Challenges of Internet Innovation.
Due to introduction of new technology, changes in the way we live and work have been widely experienced. Then emerged the innovation of the internet which has greatly and widely raised a debate in regards to the effect in our society and has also raised great worry on how far it should be adopted. Different views have been directed towards the internet innovation whereby some view it with great optimism while others view it as a threat that is disrupting our daily normal lives. Let’s compare with the introduction of telephone’s; many people thought it will interfere with our society, break up communities, encourage selfishness and interfere with people’s privacy but others looked at it as a business opportunity that will bring people closer together (Park, 2004).
Innovation of internet has brought these same points of view back with us. Some of us view the internet as the mankind great invention that is worth being accessed by every printing press. We believe that the internet will do the following:
- Improve our political and economic power
- Bring improved communication among our people
- Enhance cultural and social interaction
- Encourage world peace.
At the other end, some believe that innovation of internet will result to cultural and economic abuse, lead to lack of privacy and lead to misuse of values and social standards especially by the young generation.
Some of these arguments may be proved right or not, but just as the innovation of electricity, telephone and airplane fashioned our world in the twentieth century, so has the innovation of internet shaped our early years in the twenty first century thus enhancing a positive effect in the way we work and live. But this has not changed the primary aspects of organizations and the environment since persons are still requiring their social trends, businesses still need to make profits and learners still need good teachers. However, today’s arguments on how much the world should adopt use of internet have raised serious matters that require addressing to make the use of the internet enormous potential.
Qualities of a good Internet Connection.
According to internet innovators, there are some qualities that one should carefully consider before purchasing the internet from the dealers. Some of the internet dealers give poor quality internet which is not reliable especially to big organizations and institutions (VERDICK.ORG, 2011). Below are five qualities to consider first before choosing the internet connection of your choice:
- Speed. An internet connection is referred to as broadband connection because of its speed. Many internet providers advertise on providing the best internet only to disappoint client’s later. Therefore, if the broadband provider you are using is not giving enough speed then there is no need in using it. It is advisable to an organization, institution or individual as well to know what speed you need in order to make sure that the broadband you are using can provide it (Jude 2010).
- Reliable. When comparing broadband service, reliability should be a quality that you need to compare with other service providers. A good and solid internet should always be available despite the weather or climate changes.
- Consistence. When internet became popular among students and researchers, they started looking for organizations that could provide consistent internet services due to their day to day research. Always consider a service that will be their especially when you need it the most and that is worth your money. Speed and consistence should always go along.
- Abundance. Always ensure that your ISP does not limit your internet access since the broadband internet is characterized by speed, thus making you regret why you chose that internet connection. Most broadband providers give unlimited access to the users (Jude, 2010).
- Cost. An organization, institution or individual should go for a broadband service that is affordable to them. The price charged for internet services is also a major factor when choosing a good and reliable broadband internet connection. If it is too expensive, then it should justify with its services (SB-IRC, 2007).
Changes to be made in Internet Innovation
Though the internet is termed as one of the best and important human development worldwide, there are other things that should be looked at or changed (Gates, 2000). Some of these include:
- Restrictions on the age for those using internet. It is not considered healthy for children.
- Improvement and enhancement on privacy.
Through this study, we realize that internet innovation has completely changed the way we live, work and learn. The importance of the internet has largely grown and will continue growing in years to come. Currently; most of the global communities are carrying out their businesses, receiving their means of entertainment and keeping in touch with each other through the internet. People nowadays work at home through the internet, people are using email instead of letters to stay in touch, businesses have invested millions in the internet, unlimited business opportunities have emerged and people’s way of communication has changed greatly. And despite all this, the internet seems to be still very young. In simple words, internet innovation has made life feel and look good despite the few shortcomings which still came with its innovations. As the saying goes, everything has its bad side so what matters most are if positive effects over rank the negative ones (Goldberg, 2006 ).
Internet innovation has made the world activities seem so easy; people have found it a business opportunity while others have found employment in it. Companies which had not adopted the service are now at it, not forgetting the number of employed old people who are going back to colleges in order to catch up with the new technology and avoid being put aside to welcome the younger tech-skilled individuals who are highly in demand in the business world. It is all so clear that internet innovation is a light to the world. It has made the world grow in an extravagant way thus helping also in the economic, cultural, social and political factors.
Gates, B. (2000, December). Shaping the Internet Age. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from Microsoft News Centre: http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/exec/billg/writing/shapingtheinternet.mspx
Jude, M. (2010). NET NEUTRALITY. London: Stratecast.
SB-IRC. (2007). Qualities of a Good Internet Connection. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from SB-Innovation: http://www.sb-innovation.de/f209/5-qualities-good-broadband-connection-23826/
VERDICK.ORG. (2011). Negative Effects of Internet Usage on Child Development. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from Offering Solitude for the Psyche and Soul: http://www.verdick.org/child-development-and-the-internet/child-dev-neg
Afuah, A. (2007, June 12). TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF EMBEDDEDNESS. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from DRUID: 2007
Attala, J. (1996, March). The Impact of the Internet on Business. Retrieved october 16, 2011, from Stanford: http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~dwhitney/lisa/IS_Final_Proj.html
Berkun, S. (2010). The Myths of Innovation. Sebastopol: O’Reily Media Inc.
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Cortese, J. (2007). Internet learning and the building of knowledge. New York: Cambria Press.
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French, D. (1999). Internet based learning:an introduction and framework for higher education. Virginia: Stylus Publishing,LLC.
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Plunkett, J. W. (2006). Plunkett’s E-Commerce and internet Business Almanac. Houston: Plunkett Research Ltd.
Schewick, B. V. (2010). Internet Architecture and innovation. New York: Library of Congress Press.
Taumi, I. (2002). Networks of innovation: change and meaning in the age of the internet. New York: Oxford University Press.
What is the internet?
History & development of the internet.
Who pays for the internet?
What makes the internet work?
The client/server Model
The use of local client
Electronic mail on the internet.
How does E-mail work?
Reading an internet address
Types of discussion lists
Introduction to network news
How does network news work
Newsgroup: what's in a name?
Remote Login and File Transfer
Introduction to FTP, File Transfer Protocol
Resources available to you via FTP
Introduction to Gopher
Introduction to the world wide web
Uniform resource locators, or URLs
WWW clients, or "Browsers"
A look at search engines.
By the turn of the century, information, including access to the Internet, will be the basis for personal, economic, and political advancement. The popular name for the Internet is the information superhighway. Whether you want to find the latest financial news, browse through library catalogs, exchange information with colleagues, or join in a lively political debate, the Internet is the tool that will take you beyond telephones, faxes, and isolated computers to a burgeoning networked information frontier.
The Internet supplements the traditional tools you use to gather information, Data Graphics, News and correspond with other people. Used skillfully, the Internet shrinks the world and brings information, expertise, and knowledge on nearly every subject imaginable straight to your computer.
What is the Internet?
The Internet links are computer networks all over the world so that users can share resources and communicate with each other. Some computers, have direct access to all the facilities on the Internet such as the universities. And other computers, eg privately-owned ones, have indirect links through a commercial service provider, who offers some or all of the Internet facilities. In order to be connected to Internet, you must go through service suppliers. Many options are offered with monthly rates. Depending on the option chosen, access time may vary.
The Internet is what we call a metanetwork, that is, a network of networks that spans the globe. It's impossible to give an exact count of the number of networks or users that comprise the Internet, but it is easily in the thousands and millions respectively. The Internet employs a set of standardized protocols which allow for the sharing of resources among different kinds of computers that communicate with each other on the network. These standards, sometimes referred to as the Internet Protocol Suite, are the rules that developers adhere to when creating new functions for the Internet.
The Internet is also what we call a distributed system; there is no central archives. Technically, no one runs the Internet. Rather, the Internet is made up of thousands of smaller networks. The Internet thrives and develops as its many users find new ways to create, display and retrieve the information that constitutes the Internet.
History & Development of the Internet:
In its infancy, the Internet was originally conceived by the Department of Defense as a way to protect government communications systems in the event of a military strike. The original network, dubbed ARPANet (for the Advanced Research Projects Agency that developed it) evolved into a communications channel among contractors, military personnel, and university researchers who were contributing to ARPA projects.
The network employed a set of standard protocols to create an effective way for these people to communicate and share data with each other.
ARPAnet's popularity continued to spread among researchers, and in the 1980's the National Science Foundation, whose NSFNet, linked several high speed computers, took charge of the what had come to be known as the Internet.
By the late 1980's, thousands of cooperating networks were participating in the Internet.
In 1991, the U.S. High Performance Computing Act established the NREN (National Research & Education Network). NREN's goal was to develop and maintain high-speed networks for research and education, and to investigate commercial uses for the Internet.
The rest, as they say, is history in the making. The Internet has been improved through the developments of such services as Gopher and the World Wide Web.
Even though the Internet is predominantly thought of as a research oriented network, it continues to grow as an informational, creative, and commercial resource every day and all over the world.
Who Pays for the Internet?
There is no clear answer to this question because the Internet is not one "thing", it's many things. No one central agency exists that charges individual Internet users. Rather, individuals and institutions who use the Internet pay a local or regional Internet service provider for their share of services. And in turn, those smaller Internet service providers might purchase services from an even larger network. So basically, everyone who uses the Internet in some way pays for part of it.
2-what makes the internet work?
The unique thing about the Internet is that it allows many different computers to connect and talk to each other. This is possible because of a set of standards, known as protocols, that govern the transmission of data over the network: TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Most people who use the Internet aren't so interested in details related to these protocols. They do, however, want to know what they can do on the Internet and how to do it effectively.
The Client/Server Model:
The most popular Internet tools operate as client/server systems. You're running a program called a Web client. This piece of software displays documents for you and carries out your requests. If it becomes necessary to connect to another type of service--say, to set up a Telnet session, or to download a file--your Web client will take care of this, too. Your Web client connects (or "talks") to a Web server to ask for information on your behalf.
The Web server is a computer running another type of Web software which provides data, or "serves up" an information resource to your Web client.
All of the basic Internet tools--including Telnet, FTP, Gopher, and the World Wide Web--are based upon the cooperation of a client and one or more servers. In each case, you interact with the client program and it manages the details of how data is presented to you or the way in which you can look for resources. In turn, the client interacts with one or more servers where the information resides. The server receives a request, processes it, and sends a result, without having to know the details of your computer system, because the client software on your computer system is handling those details.
The advantage of the client/server model lies in distributing the work so that each tool can focus or specialize on particular tasks: the server serves information to many users while the client software for each user handles the individual user's interface and other details of the requests and results.
The Use of Local Clients:
Every computer should be equipped with basic client software packages that allow you to perform functions such as electronic mail, Telnet, Gopher, and FTP.
Electronic mail on the internet:
Electronic mail, or e-mail, is probably the most popular and widely used Internet function. E-mail, email, or just mail, is a fast and efficient way to communicate with friends or colleagues. You can communicate with one person at a time or thousands; you can receive and send files and other information. You can even subscribe to electronic journals and newsletters. You can send an e-mail message to a person in the same building or on the other side of the world.
How does E-mail Work?
E-mail is an asynchronous form of communication, meaning that the person whom you want to read your message doesn't have to be available at the precise moment you send your message. This is a great convenience for both you and the recipient.
On the other hand, the telephone, which is a synchronous communication medium, requires that both you and your listener be on the line at the same time in order for you to communicate (unless you leave a voice message). It will be impossible to discuss all the details of the many e-mail packages available to Internet users.
Fortunately, however, most of these programs share basic functionality which allow you to:
*send and receive mail messages
*save your messages in a file
*print mail messages
*reply to mail messages
*attach a file to a mail message
Reading an Internet Address:
To use Internet e-mail successfully, you must understand how the names and addresses for computers and people on the Internet are formatted. Mastering this technique is just as important as knowing how to use telephone numbers or postal addresses correctly.
Fortunately, after you get the hang of them, Internet addresses are usually no more complex than phone numbers and postal addresses.
And, like those methods of identifying a person, an organization, or a geographic location--usually by a telephone number or a street address--Internet addresses have rules and conventions for use.
Sample Internet Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Internet address has three parts:
1.a user name [custcare in the example above]
2.an "at" sign (@)
3.the address of the user's mail server [aucegypt.edu in the example above] Sometimes it's useful to read an Internet address (like email@example.com) or a domain name from right to left because it helps you determine information about the source of the address.
An address like 201B6DQF@asu.edu doesn't tell me much about the person who's sending me a message, but I can deduce that the sender is affiliated with an educational institution because of the suffix edu.
The right-most segment of domain names usually adhere to the naming conventions listed below:
EDU Educational sites in the United States
COM Commercial sites in the United States
GOV Government sites in the United States
NET Network administrative organizations
MIL Military sites in the United States
ORG Organizations in the U.S. not covered by the categories above (e.g., non-profit orginaizations).
.xx where xx is the country code (e.g., .eg for Egypt).
Once you've become adept at using e-mail, you may want to communicate with others on the Internet who share your interests. Newsgroups are one way to do this; the other is through an electronic discussion group. An electronic discussion is a group of persons who have come together to discuss a particular topic via e-mail. There are several methods that network users can use to participate in electronic discussions; however, the basic purpose is to bring together persons with similar interests to share information, ideas, problems, solutions, and opinions. Since an electronic discussion is conducted by e-mail, it's commonly called a mailing list.
If you find yourself interested in a topic, you can subscribe to a suitable mailing list. From then on, any message sent to the mailing list is automatically distributed as electronic mail to you--as well as to all previously subscribed members of that particular discussion. The beauty of a mailing list is that traffic (the mail generated by that list) covers a specific topic and the
mail it generates comes straight to your electronic mailbox, without any extra work on your part. There are thousands of mailing lists operating on the Internet, dedicated to myriad topics. Some are created to serve local needs only (i.e., a list for the members of a regional computer user group), while many are open to anyone on the network. There are discussions on professional topics, vocational subjects, and topics of personal interest. You can roughly separate the thousands of mailing lists available on the Internet into the following groups:
Types of discussion lists:
Moderated vs. Unmoderated Lists
Mailing lists can be moderated or unmoderated. The distinction is whether messages are automatically forwarded to all subscribers (unmoderated) or whether a moderator (a human being) first screens and perhaps combines similar messages before sending them to subscribers (moderated).
Open vs. Closed Lists
Electronic discussions can also be "open" or "closed." Anyone can subscribe to an open discussion, but a closed discussion is limited to a particular group of persons, for example, those in a particular professional field.
Introduction to network news:
Network News (sometimes referred to as Usenet News) is a service comprised of several thousand electronic discussions providing users an effective way to share information with others on just about any topic.
If you're unclear about the concept of Network News, it's helpful to think about a bulletin
board that you might see on campus.
Here, one might find posted messages advertising a futon for sale, asking for students to join a math study group. In the newsgroup environment, the same kind of process take place:
User X may access a newsgroup on a particular topic and post a message, question, or respond to a previously posted message, and anyone accessing that newsgroup would then be able to see User X's message.
Network News newsgroups provide this same kind of forum online, where users have access to the messages posted by all other users of that newsgroup.
Network News has been described as an "international meeting place" where you're likely to find a discussion going on just about anything.
How Does Network News work?
Messages posted on Network News newsgroups are sent from host computer to host computer all over the world, using the network news transfer protocol.
Because Network News newsgroups are located on one server, Network News is a very efficient way to share information that might otherwise be disseminated to several individual users.
This way, several people can read a given newsgroup message, but the host system stores only one copy of it.
Newsgroups: What's in a Name?
As mentioned before, Network News is essentially made up of newsgroups, each newsgroup a collection of messages focusing on a related theme.
You can probably find a newsgroup on any topic, no matter how arcane or bizarre.
A newsgroup's name gives you a good idea of that group's focus, and also illustrates the hierarchical naming scheme given to newsgroups.
Newsgroups with the prefix comp, for example, are for computer-related topics.
After the initial prefix, you'll see an additional series of names assigned to the newsgroup that tell its specific concern: Note the following examples:
comp.mac.performa for "computers--macintosh--performas"
rec.auto.antique for "recreation--autos--antiques"
alt.backrubs for "alternative--backrubs"
soc.culture.japan for "social--culture--japan"
Remote Login & File Transfer:
Introduction to telnet:
Telnet is the protocol used to establish a login session on a remote computer on the network. While many computers on the Internet require users to have authorization, others are open to the public and can be logged onto with telnet. Telnet is not a method to transfer files from one machine to another, but rather is a way to remotely connect to another system with priveleges to run specific programs on that system. Some uses of the Telnet protocol include:
connecting to a library catalog to search that library's collection connecting to a location that allows public priveleges to search its campus information system connecting to a location that gives you an up-to-the minute weather report
Basic Telnet Commands
open - establishes a connection to the specified host.close - closes an open connection and leaves you in the telnet software quit - closes any open telnet sessions and exits the telnet software. When using a telnet program like NCSA Telnet, you invoke these commands by way of pull-down menus or command keys.
Introduction to FTP, File Transfer Protocol:
Basic commands in FTP:
To do FTP, a user invokes one of two commands:
get the command for transferring a file from another server to your own computer.
put the command for moving a file from your computer to another one.
Who can do FTP? Anonymous vs. authorized priveleges
On many servers, called anonymous FTP servers, anyone can do FTP. All that is required to login is a username (anonymous) and a password (your e-mail address). To get an idea of the many resources available via FTP, you can look at this selected list of FTP servers.
Other servers require you to be a registered "authorized" user before you're permitted to do FTP. In such a case, you would need to contact the system operator for the server you wish to access, and request an authorization and a password. Getting an authorization and password might mean that you can get and put only to specific subdirectories on that server.
Resources available to you via FTP
When you download freeware, the author continues to carry the copyright to the software, but permits you to use the program for free. You can share freeware with others, as long as you don't sell it.
When you download public domain software, you can use it freely. The creator carries no copyright, and has released it for anyone to use. There are no limits on distribution or sale--and anyone can modify the program.
When you download shareware, the author continues to carry the copyright to the software, but you're permitted short-term use of the program for evaluation purposes.
At the end of evaluation period, you must either pay the copyright holder for the program or destroy all copies you've made of it.
Introduction to Gopher:
Gopher is a client/server system that allows you to access many Internet resources simply by making selections from a sequence of menus. Each time you make a selection, Gopher carries out your request to the computer that contains the information and "serves" it up. For example, if you select a menu item that represents a text file, Gopher will get that file--wherever it happens to be--and display it for you. As you use Gopher, some menu items lead to other menus. If you choose one of these, Gopher will retrieve the new menu and display it for you. Thus you can move from menu to menu, using only a few key strokes or a mouse to navigate. The power of Gopher is that the resources listed in a menu may be anywhere on the Internet. As Gopher connects to computers to comply with your menu selection, you don't need to be preoccupied with the behind-the-scenes work of connecting to and disconnecting from these various computers. Gopher does this for you without your even needing to be aware of it. This automatic connecting makes Gopher popular and useful.
Where did Gopher come from?
"Born" in April 1991, gopher began as a project at the Microcomputer, Workstation, and Networks Center at the University of Minnesota to help people on campus get answers to computer-related questions. At the time, the computer center staff had accumulated answers to thousands of questions regarding computers and software.
What was needed was an easy and efficient way to deliver this information to students, faculty and staff. Thus, the creation of Gopher reaffirms the adage that necessity is the mother of invention.
Why is it called Gopher?
The name "Gopher" is appropriate for three reasons:
1.Just as a real gopher successfully navigates beneath the prairie, the Internet Gopher tunnels through the invisible paths of the Internet to help you find the information you want.
2.The name refers to someone who fetches things or provides service for other people.
3.The Golden Gopher is the mascot of the University of Minnesota.
Introduction to the World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (also referred to as WWW or W3) is the fastest growing area of the Internet. While gopher was an important step in allowing users to "browse" through the Internet's vast resources, the World Wide Web has raised excitement about the Internet to new heights.
What makes the World Wide Web appealing and innovative is its use of hypertext as a way of linking documents to each other. A highlighted word or phrase in one document acts as a pointer to another document that amplifies or relates to the first document. When looking at a WWW document, the reader doesn't have to follow every pointer, or link (also called a hypertext link), only those that look interesting or useful. In this way, the user tailors the experience to suit his or her needs or interests. The other very appealing aspect of the World Wide Web is the use of graphics and sound capabilities. Documents on the WWW include text, but they may also include still images, video, and audio for a very exciting presentation. People who create WWW documents often include a photograph of themselves along with detailed professional information and personal interests. (This is often called a person's home page.)
What makes the WWW work?
WWW is another example of client/server computing. Each time a link is followed, the client is requesting a document (or graphic or sound file) from a server (also called a Web server) that's part of the World Wide Web that "serves" up the document. The server uses a protocol called HTTP or HyperText Transport Protocol. The standard for creating hypertext documents for the WWW is HyperText Markup Language or HTML. HTML essentially codes plain text documents so they can be viewed on the Web.
Uniform Resource Locators, or URLs:
A Uniform Resource Locator, or URL is the address of a document you'll find on the WWW. Your WWW browser interprets the information in the URL in order to connect to the proper Internet server and to retrieve your desired document. Each time you click on a hyperlink in a WWW document, you're actually instructing your browser to find the URL that's embedded within the hyperlink.
The elements in a URL:Protocol://server's address/filename
Hypertext protocol: http://www.aucegypt.edu
Gopher protocol: gopher://gopher.umm.tc.edu
File Transfer Protocol: ftp://ftp.dartmouth.edu
Telnet Protocol: telnet://pac.carl.org
News Protocol: news:alt.rock-n-roll.stones
WWW Clients, or "Broswers":
The program you use to access the WWW is known as a browser because it "browses" the WWW and requests these hypertext documents. Browsers can be graphical, like Netscape and Mosaic, allowing you to see and hear the graphics and audio; text-only browsers (i.e., those with no sound or graphics capability) are also available. All of these programs understand
http and other Internet protocols such as FTP, gopher, mail, and news, making the WWW a kind of "one stop shopping" for Internet users.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC), the other method for Internet conversation, is less common than talk because someone must set up the Chat before others can join in. Chat sessions allow many users to join in the same free-form conversation, usually centered around a discussion topic. When users see a topic that interests them, they type a command to join and then type another command to choose a nickname. Nicknames allow people in the session to find you on IRC Networks or Channels.
A look at search engines:
The World Wide Web is "indexed" through the use of search engines, which are also referred to as "spiders," "robots," "crawlers," or "worms". These search engines comb through the Web documents, identifying text that is the basis for keyword searching. Each search engine works in a different way. Some engines scan for information in the title or header of the document; others look at the bold "headings" on the page for their information. The fact that search engines gather information differently means that each will probably yield different results. Therefore, it's wise to try more than one search engine when doing Web searching.
The list below lists several search engines and how each one gathers information, plus resources that evaluate the search engines.
Selected Search Engines (listed alphabetically)
Alta Vista, maintained by The Digital Equipment Corp., indexes the full text of over 16 million pages including newsgroups. Check out the Alta Vista Tips page.
Excite includes approximately 1.5 million indexed pages, including newsgroups. Check out the Excite NetSearch handbook.
InfoSeek Net Search
Indexes full text of web pages, including selected newsgroups and electronic journals.
Just under one-half million pages indexed. Check out the InfoSeek Search Tips.
As of December 1995, the Inktomi search engine offers a database of approximately 2.8 million indexed Web documents and promises very fast search retrievals. Results are ranked in order of how many of your searched terms are used on the retrieved pages.
Lycos indexes web pages (1.5 million +), web page titles, headings, subheadings, URLs, and significant text.
Search results are returned in a ranked order.
Magellan indexes over 80,000 web sites. Search results are ranked and annotated.
Open Text Index
Indexes full text of approximately 1.3 million pages. Check out the Open Text Help pages for tips on using this search engine.
Maintained by America Online, WebCrawler indexes over 200,000 pages on approximately 75,000 web servers. URLs, titles, and document content are indexed.
WWWW -- World Wide Web Worm
Approximately 250,000 indexed pages; indexed content includes hypertext, URLs, and document titles.
A favorite directory and search engine, Yahoo has organized over 80,000 Web sites (including newsgroups) into 14 broad categories. Yahoo also maintains a comprehensive list of links to Yahoo - Computers and Internet:Internet:World Wide Web: Searching the Web other web search engines, indexes, and guides.
Finally the internet is a huge source of information in all fields of knowledge.
Datum will take your hand through this incredible world of
information to get what you need in a fast, reliable
and professional way.
Source : DATUM Company and Internet Access Magazine .