A student may feel proud to be associated with the prodigious personality of his ideal teacher; So I do. My ideal teacher, Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch, reflects the traditional Islamic pattern of "simple-living and high thinking". He puts his thoughts into practice and digs deep into knowledge which he proliferates through his lectures, addresses and writings. During 1961-62, he taught us Anthropology. He entered the class room at the exact minute and did not leave a minute before time. All the time, he lectured according to the outlines prepared by him, and used the blackboard like a school teacher. We were required to note down the points and further study the relevant books in the seminar-library. He would not even let us heave a copy of his outlines; rather he stopped the supply of last years question papers which helped students cram answers accordingly.
His life style is simple, super and salutary, all the three aspects combined into an unassumingly stern and active personality called Dr. Baloch. Oliver Goldsmith (1730-1774) described his village school master as:
"A man he was stern to view,
I knew him well,
And every truant knew."
I do not feel any different, Forty years ago I was his student but the impact of his robust personality, I have carried up till now. He is regular in his evening walk, not a stroll rather a march. One evening I shuddered to encounter him on his way back from his walk. I was returning from the seminar library of which I was the secretary. "What are you doing here at this time?" He asked me, and I told him, "How many students come to the library in the evening hours?" He asked next, and I told him that some lady teacher-trainees attended regularly. He looked at me and said," I hope you don't come for them" and I really shivered in my shoes.
One evening I saw cots laid outside Dr. Baloch's residence a 3 room quarter. I asked my name-sake, Habibullah, who was Dr. Baloch's personal friend and expert of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai's Risalo, about the guests. He told me that besides an office clerk and a student who cannot afford lodging and boarding hostel and live permanently with Dr. Baloch's family. Artisans and artists who came to Hyderabad to perform on Radio Pakistan or come on personal errands, also stay here and partake rice and pulses which Dr. Baloch can afford to offer them. Later on I learnt that Dr. Baloch had eleven cats, each with a name, a female hog-deer, chickens and other pet animals and birds, with whom he conversed, calling them by name, and feeding them personally on time every day. The hogdeer was donated to the municipal garden, where Dr. Baloch sometime went to meet her. He has a strong aesthetic sense and has abundant collection of fine arts, artifacts etc. He watches T.V for the National Geographic documentaries, the animal world and wrestling. He is free with his family members and plays with his children, now grand children, chess, cards and every other in-door game.
Those days, I smoked pattay-ji-beeri but I did not know then that my ideal teacher also did the same. He was never seen smoking and nobody would believe that he could ever. As I know now, he went on with cigarettes, trying the finest and the cheapest brands, 555 to K-2, then cigars and finally the pipe, and then he gave up smoking after a heart by-pass in Islamabad due to incessant heavy work. He was used to stimulation by tea taking and smoking. He has since given up the usual stimulation but not his life long work habit.
He may be unkindly described as a penny pincher but honestly speaking he is not a miser. He spends where necessary but wisely. He saves prudently and manages economically. In 1987, Dr. Baloch received a sum of Rs. 8, 47,544, left by the late Allama I.I. Kazi with the late Mr. A.K.Brohi. It was the seed-money for the Allama I.I. Kazi Memorial Society of which Dr. Baloch was the General Secretary. He kept the money in fixed deposit and ran the society out of the markup earned each year. About 30 publications have been brought out to proliferate the thought and teachings of Allama I.I. Kazi. An essay competition on the life and work of the great philosopher-educator was initiated at the 20th death anniversary on 13th April 1981. I got Rs. 4000 from the funds of the society sat the first prize, and my moagraph was published by the Pakistan Study Centre on the initiative of Dr. Baloch. "Allama Kazi Cultural Centre" has been established by him adjacent to the Mausoleum. Yet the un-touched seed-money now stands at Rs. 9 lac. A financial wizard! No?
I have seen him in relaxed mood as well. The first time, during 50's, when he came to our village to meet a sughar, uncle Haji Abdul Qadir Siddiqui. He sat through the night and got all his abiyat (poetry) transcribed, while listening to him and appreciating his art. He has had many such sittings in his research galore, through the length and breadth of Sind, and has collected much more material on the culture and literature of Sindh than has been published so for.
For me it is difficult to circumscribe the contribution of Dr. Baloch towards the renaissance of Sindh, revival of its educational tradition and enriching the world of knowledge. He is a prolific writer with over 100 published books and a lot unpublished. He has done orignal research on the life and poetry of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (10 volumes) as well as compiled. Edited and published the poetry of other prominent classical poets of Sindh. He has explored and published Sindhi folk-lore, (44 books) and helped promote arts, museums, libraries and art galleries. His services towards developing the Sindhi Adabi Board, the Sindh University, the Mehran Arts Council and Sindh's atmost all literary, cultural and educational institutions, is a record so far in Sindh history. At the federal leve, too, he has immensely contributed towards institution- building and advancement of knowledge. Indeed he has laid firm formations for continuous research in history, literature and education, with us he is a precious asset and golden apportunity for an overall advancement into the 21st century.
Shah Latif, the mentor of Dr. Baloch and of us all, says”تان ڪي ساڻن اور، جان آهين اوطاقن ۾“)converse with them (the saint scholars) till they are available at open houses). May be live long, but the mortal will leave us one day. After him, we will have to set a research institute to study the life and work of Dr. N. A. Baloch. Better to avail of his benevolent presence amongst us, these days. It requires a sharper insight. I would like to sum up my observations with the following couplet of Allama Iqbal:
”هزار چشمـﻶ تيرﻵ سنگ راه سـﻶ پهوڻـﻶ،
خودي مين ڊوب کر، ضربِ کليم پيدا کر“
__ And conclude with a prayer, and blessing from Shah Latif.
” جکرا جيئين شال، تنهنجو ڪنين مدو م سُڻان،
جيئن تو اچي ڪالهه، نالائق نوازيا.
Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Baloch:
An Endless Journey
(Summarised and correction supplied)
He is the son of the soil, a man of folk wisdom. Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Baloch has devoted much of his time to Sindhi literature (oral as well as written) and culture, an academician by profession, but a Sindhologist by instinct, he is a tireless traveller who has combed every nook and corner of Sindh to discover and record its past and present. From the life and times in the Indus valley, Sindh's mountains, deserts and plains to its people; it's fairy tales and political turmoil, from kings to poets, beggars to thieves, past civilizations to the present times, Dr. Baloch has discovered, collect, compiled, researched and authored a formidable range of subjects. "Dr. Nabi Bakshs Baloch never retires, "say his friends and foes in Sindh.
He simply attributes all the plaudits to his simple upbringing. I come from a land of folklore, so it was but natural that I imbibe it, says Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Baloch. Born in December 1917, his father Ali Muhammad Khan Baloch hailed from a peasant family from Jafar Khan Laghari Village (District Sanghar), whose inhabitants are known to be staunch followers of Pir Pagaro.
Reminiscing over his childhood days, he says, "I still remember the socio-economic fabric of my village long before the introduction of canals in Sindh. There were the cobblers, the blacksmiths, and the potters. Peasants would irrigate their lands with naar (a wooden wheel fitted with clay pots that draws water from below and is driven by a pair of bullocks in a circle). It used to make a fascinating sound."
The lifestyle and customs had a profound effect on Nabi Bakhsh Baloch's childhood. He was enrolled in the famous Naushahro Feroz Madressah and High School, which has produced men of high caliber like Allama Umar Bin Muhammed Doudpoto and Justice Muhammed Bachal Memon (who fearlessly authored Sindh High Court's historic judgment against the dissolution of Pakistan's first constituent assembly). Dr. Baloch did his matriculation from the same madressah with second position among the Muslim candidates from Sindh and graduated from Bahauddin College Junagadh.
His youthful years in the 1930's were spent in Sindh. It was the time when the movement for separation of Sindh from Bombay was launched by Muslim nationalist politicians like Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto and Muhammed Ayub Khuhro. "Sindh, at that time, was a neglected province annexed to Bombay and Sindh Muslim masses were kept underprivileged," he says of those days. "Sindh progressed considerably after its separation from Bombay Residency and the introduction of the canal system," he elucidates further.
These were the times when the Hur (the disciple of Pir Pagaro) were engaged in their revolt against the British in Sindh. After his B.A. (Honours) from Bahauddin College Junagadh he enrolled in the Aligarh Muslim University, then a hub of the Muslim nationalist student's movement. His thesis was on Islamic civilization. Dr. Baloch also actively participated in the Khaksar Movement at Aligarh. He did his masters and law degree from Aligarh in 1941-43. He was selected by the British Government for higher studies abroad with specialization in Education and got his masters and doctorate from Columbia University, New York.
Dr. Baloch was in the United States when Pakistan came into being. According to him he had a lot of intellectual and political confilicts with the then Hindu think-tanks like Tarik Nath Das. "I believed in what Mr. Jinnah stood for in the Lucknow Pact, "he says.
Dr. Baloch established the Pakistan chapter of Muslim Students Association in th United States. "The main object of the association was to counter propaganda against movement for Pakistan."
While there, Dr. Baloch joined the United Nations Internship and worked in the NGOs department (of ECOSOC) "long before the word 'NGOs' became fashionable here," he syas.
During his stay in the USA, Dr. Baloch also concentrated on oriental studies in context of the Islamic civilization. Dr. Baloch had left good impression as an interne in the U.N. and he was offered a 'lucrative' job in the NGO division by the Hungarian bass Mr. Laslo Hamorie, but he refused responding, "Don't you know Pakistan has come into being."
He opted for his newly liberated country and with great difficulty got a job in the Ministry of Interior, Information and Broadcasting as an OSD. later on, Sindhi Adabi Board was set up and was drawing an outline on a comprehensive Sindhi dictionary (an idea originated by G.M Syed during his tenure as Sindh Education Minister). Dr. Baloch offered his services for the project. "The time limit for compiling the dictionary was three years. I worked for 20 hours a day with my team comprising of energetic young men, Sardar Ali Shah Zakir, Mumtaz Mirza, Shaikh Muhammed Ismail and completed the project."
After that he took upon himself the gigantic task of collecting and compiling various generic varieties of Sindhi folklore. For that he traveled to every nook and corner of Sindh and came across hundreds of sughars (wise men and women). The publication of more than 40 volumes of Sindhi folklore published by Sindhi Adabi Board goes to his credit, to the majority of people in interior Sindh. Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Baloch is known for his works on Sindhi folklore. Then the Sindhi Adabi Board stopped publishing Sindhi folklore completely. "By doing so, they killed all ideas and prospective projects on Sindhi folklore and culture," he says.
Dr. Balochs first appointment was OSD in Information Broadcasting Division of Ministry of Interior from when he resigned in 1951. He was offered a job as professor of Education by the then SindhUniversity's Vice Chancellor saintly scholar Allama I.I. Kazi (Now Dr. Baloch is married to one of his nieces). He had been teaching at the SindhUniversity, until he was appointed Vice Chancellor by the regime of Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto in the wake of unrest in various Jamshoro campuses by Sindhi nationalist student. During his tenure as V.C.Sindh University, Shah Latif University Campus at Khairpur Mirs, S.UEngineering College at Nawab Shah, and department of Pharmacy and Pakistan Studies at Jamshoro campus were founded. He remained Vice Chancellor from 1973 to 1976 until he was replaced by Shaikh Ayaz. Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto wanted him to Islamabad "which proved to be a blessing in disguise for me, "he says
He was appointed as a Secretary (OSD) in the Federal Ministry of Education and Culture. Dr. Baloch was appointed by the Zia regime as the first Vice Chancellor of Islamic University. It was during his tenure that the university became completely functional. He also undertook an impressive one hundred great books project for the Hijra Council Islamabad. The aim of the project was to translate and edit books on Islamic science and civilization into English. The books included Khawarzmi's book of Algebra, Bairuni's on Mineralogy (Precious Stones) Banu Musa's on meachanical devices and Automata and Jazari's work on Hydraulic Technology etc etc.
Besides all this, he has 80 books on literature, education, history, culture, lexicography, music and folklore to his credit (they are either authored or edited by him). He has also served as a member of UNESCO's International Editorial Committee on the preparation of History of Central Asian Civilizations, and the first chairman of Sindhi Language Authority. Presently, Dr. Baloch is professor Emeritus of Sindh University and Honorary Professor on the Allama I.I. Kazi Chair. Currently, He is busy working on a ten volume standard edition of Shah Jo- Ressalo of which seven volumes have so far been completed.
"I have never seen Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Baloch but I have always imagined and visualized him since my childhood, when I started learning Sindhi alphabet, as I had read his name on our first Sindhi primary text-book edited by him," says Najma Baloch, a housewife in Hyderabad.
With his very objective and professional approach as a historian, and his workaholic nature towards all the scholarly pursuits that he undertakes, he has often been subjected to criticism by a certain section of Sindhi writers and political activists. but Dr. Nabi Bakhsh Baloch counters it in his own characteristic manner saying, "History can only be judged on the basis of evidence, because it's the past. It can not be decided by votes".
(The Daily "DAWN" Karachi
The Review, March 18.12.1998
Dr. N.A. Baloch
Introduction to Beruni's book
Kitab al-Jamahir fi Ma'arafalat-Jawahir
Beruni's booked Kitab al-Jamahir fi Ma'arafalat-Jawahir is presented to the reader, in English translation, under the Great Books Project.
This solid work-historically the first worthy text on mineralogy has not received the scholarly attention commensurate with its importance, though the need for its detailed study has been felt for a long time. It was during the thirties of this century that Fritz Krenkow edited the Arabic text which was published by the Da'irat al-Ma'arif, Hyderabad Deccan, in 1355 A.H./1936 A.D. He used all the three known manuscripts of the book. the more complete and correct Tope Kapi Sarai Ms. (Tibb. 2047) transcribed in 626 A.H. the less accurate Escuarial Ms. and the more legible Rashid Effendi Ms. (Qaysariyah) and also offered the following description of the Tope Kapi Sarai Ms.:
"The copyist of this manuscript (Tibb. 2047) calls himself at the end Ahmad b. Siddiq b. Muhammad, the physician, and says that he completed the copy for his own use and of those after him, on the first day of the month of Safar, 626 A.H…… In the margins of this copy are frequent notes often correcting or disputing statements of Beruni, by another scholar who claims to have had other works of our author at hand, and calls himself Muhammad b. Ahmad Khatib Dariya in the Salihiyya of Damascus. He lived some what later as he cites the book of drugs by Ibn al- Baitar. In a note on the front page he states that he acquired the manuscript in 678. A.H. The next owner is Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Sajd al-Ansari. I have not been able to find a biography of the first, but the second is beyond doubt the celebrated Ibn al- Akfani who died in 749 A.H. of plague. He also composed a work on jewels (Nukhab ad- Dhakha'ir, a short treatise of 15 pages, published by Cheikho in the journal al-Mashriq in 1908)"
|سنڌي / सिन्धी / / ਸਿੰਧੀ|
"Sindhi" in Nastaʿlīq
|25 million (2007)|
|Perso-Arabic script, Devanagari, Khudabadi, Laṇḍā, Gurmukhi|
Official language in
| Pakistan (Sindh)|
|Regulated by||Sindhi Language Authority (Pakistan),|
National Council For Promotion Of Sindhi Language (India)
– Sindhi Bhil
|This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.|
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी, , ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people. It is the official language of the Pakistani province of Sindh. In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the federal government.
Most Sindhi speakers are concentrated in Pakistan in the Sindh province, and in India, the Kutch region of the state of Gujarat and in the Ulhasnagar region of the state of Maharashtra. The remaining speakers in India are composed of the Sindhi Hindus who migrated from Sindh, which became a part of Pakistan and settled in India after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 and the Sindhi diaspora worldwide. Sindhi language is spoken in Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan as well as the states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat in India as well as immigrant communities in Hong Kong, Oman, Indonesia, Singapore, UAE, UK and the United States.
The Sindhi language and other native languages of Pakistan are struggling to be officially given the status of national language in Pakistan. Before the inception of Pakistan, Sindhi was the national language of Sindh. There are many Sindhi language television channels broadcasting in Pakistan such as KTN, Sindh TV, Awaz Television Network, Mehran TV and Dharti TV. Besides this, Indian television Doordarshan have been asked by the Indian court to start a news channel for Hindu Sindhis of India.
Sindhi Computing is the term used for the Software developed for the Sindhi language, these software are intended for the users to read, write and learn Sindhi language online or offline.
Sindhi language Software
Sindhi language software such as Sindhi language keyboards have been developed for the Windows OS, Android smartphones. Various other online websites provide Sindhi keyboard such as (Keymanweb.org), M.B Sindhi keyboard by Majid Bhurgri. A software have been developed by the Sindhi Language Authority which will end the barrier between the Arabic-Sindhi script or Perso-Sindhi script and Devanagari Sindhi script; such software have also been developed by the Punjabi researchers at Punjabi University and Manchester University for the Sindhi.
Main article: History of Sindh
The name "Sindhi" is derived from Sindhu, the local name of the Indus River.
See also: Sindhi literature and Sindhi poetry
When Sindh was occupied by British army and was annexed with Bombay, governor of the province Sir George Clerk ordered to make Sindhi the official language in the province in 1848. Sir Bartle Frere, the then commissioner of Sindh, issued orders on August 29, 1857 advising civil servants in Sindh to qualify examination in Sindhi. He also ordered Sindhi to be used in all official communication. Seven-grade education system commonly known as Sindhi-Final was introduced in Sindh. Sindhi Final was made a prerequisite for employment in revenue, police and education departments.
Like other languages of this family, Sindhi has passed through Old Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit) and Middle Indo-Aryan (Pali, secondary Prakrits, and Apabhramsha) stages of growth, and it entered the New Indo-Aryan stage around the 10th century CE.
In the year 1868, the Bombay Presidency assigned Narayan Jagannath Vaidya to replace the Abjad used in Sindhi, with the Khudabadi script. The script was decreed a standard script by the Bombay Presidency thus inciting anarchy in the Muslim majority region. A powerful unrest followed, after which Twelve Martial Laws were imposed by the British authorities.
According to Islamic Sindhi tradition, the first translation of the Quran into Sindhi was completed in the year 883 CE / 270 AH in Mansura, Sindh. The first extensive Sindhi translation was done by Akhund Azaz Allah Muttalawi (1747–1824 CE / 1160–1240 AH) and first published in Gujarat in 1870. The first to appear in print was by Muhammad Siddiq (Lahore 1867).
Sindhi has a relatively large inventory of both consonants and vowels compared to other languages. Sindhi has 46 consonantphonemes and 16 vowels. The consonant to vowel ratio is around average for world's languages at 2.8. All plosives, affricates, nasals, the retroflex flap and the lateral approximant /l/ have aspirated or breathy voiced counterparts. The language also features four implosives.
The retroflex consonants are apicalpostalveolar and do not involve curling back of the tip of the tongue, so they could be transcribed /t̠, t̠ʰ, d̠, d̠ʱ n̠ n̠ʱ s̠ ɾ̠ ɾ̠ʱ/. The dental implosive is sometimes realized as retroflex [ɗ̠]~[ᶑ] The affricates /t̠ɕ, t̠ɕʰ, d̠ʑ, d̠ʑʱ/ are laminal post-alveolars with a relatively short release. It is not clear if /ɲ/ is similar, or truly palatal./ʋ/ is realized as labiovelar [w] or labiodental [ʋ] in free variation occurs, but is not common, except before a stop.
The vowels are modal length /i e æ ɑ ɔ o u/ and short /ɪ̆ ʊ̆ ɐ̆/. (Note /æ ɑ ɐ̆/ are imprecisely transcribed as /ɛ a ə/ in the chart.) Consonants following short vowels are lengthened: [pɐ̆tˑo] 'leaf' vs. [pɑto] 'worn'.
Ernest Trumpp authored the first Sindhi grammar entitled Sindhi Alphabet and Grammar.
Sindhi has borrowed from English and Hindustani. Today, Sindhi in Pakistan is slightly influenced by Urdu, with more borrowed Perso-Arabic elements, while Sindhi in India is influenced by Hindi, with more borrowed tatsam Sanskrit elements.
The following extract is from the Sindhi Wikipedia about the Sindhi language and is written in the 52-letter Sindhi-Arabic script, Devanagari and transliterated to Latin.
Sindhi-Arabic script:سنڌي ٻولي انڊو يورپي خاندان سان تعلق رکندڙ آريائي ٻولي آھي، جنھن تي عربي ٻوليءَ جو بہ تمام وڏو اثر آهي. هن وقت سنڌي ٻولي سنڌ جي مک ٻولي ۽ دفتري زبان آھي.
Devanagari script:सिन्धी ॿोली इण्डो यूरपी ख़ान्दान सां ताल्लुक़ु रखन्दड़ आर्याई ॿोली आहे, जिंहन ते कुझ द्राविड़ी उहुञाण पण मौजूद आहिनि। हिन वक़्तु सिन्धी ॿोली सिन्ध जी मुख ॿोली ऐं दफ़्तरी ज़बान आहे।
Transliteration (IAST): sindhī b̤olī iṇḍo yūrapī khāndān sā̃ taʿlluqu rakhandaṛ āryāī b̤olī āhe, janhin te arbi boli-a jo tamaam waddo asar-u aahe. hin-a vaqtu sindhī b̤olī sindh jī mukh b̤olī ãĩ daftarī zabānā āhe.
The dialects of Sindhi include Vicholi, Lari, Lasi, Kathiawari Katchi, Thareli, Macharia, Dukslinu and Muslim Sindhi. The "Siraiki" dialect in northern Sindh is distinct from the Saraiki language of South Punjab and has variously been treated either as a dialect of it, or as a dialect of Sindhi. The Sindhi dialects previously known as "Siraiki" are nowadays more commonly referred to as "Siroli".
Written Sindhi is mentioned in the 8th century, when references to a Sindhi version of the Mahabharata appear. However, the earliest attested records in Sindhi are from the 15th century.
Before the standardisation of Sindhi orthography, numerous forms of the Devanagari and Lunda (Laṇḍā) scripts were used for trading. For literary and religious purposes, an Arabic-Persian alphabet known as Ab-ul-Hassan Sindhi and Gurmukhi (a subset of Laṇḍā) were used. Another two scripts, Khudabadi and Shikarpuri, were reforms of the Landa script. During British rule in the late 19th century, a Persian alphabet was decreed standard over Devanagari.
Medieval Sindhi devotional literature (1500–1843) comprises Sufi poetry and Advaita Vedanta poetry. Sindhi literature flourished during the modern period (since 1843), although the language and literary style of contemporary Sindhi writings in Pakistan and India were noticeably diverging by the late 20th century; authors from the former country were borrowing extensively from Persian and Arabic vocabulary, while those from the latter were highly influenced by Hindi.
Laṇḍā-based scripts, such as Gurmukhi, Khojki and the Khudabadi script were used historically to write Sindhi.
The Khudabadi alphabet was invented in 1550 CE, and was used alongside the Arabic script by the Hindu community until the colonial era, where the sole usage of the Arabic script for official purposes was legislated.
The script continued to be used in a smaller scale by the trader community until the independence of Pakistan in 1947.
Khojki was employed primarily to record Muslim Shia Ismaili religious literature, as well as literature for a few secret Shia Muslim sects.
The Gurmukhi script was also used to write Sindhi, mainly in the North of Sindh, and also by Hindu women.
Historically, different versions of the Arabic script were used by the Hindu and Muslim communities. During British rule in India, a variant of the Persian alphabet was adopted for Sindhi in the 19th century. The script is used in Pakistan today. It has a total of 64 letters, augmenting the Persian with digraphs and eighteen new letters (ڄ ٺ ٽ ٿ ڀ ٻ ڙ ڍ ڊ ڏ ڌ ڇ ڃ ڦ ڻ ڱ ڳ ڪ) for sounds particular to Sindhi and other Indo-Aryan languages. Some letters that are distinguished in Arabic or Persian are homophones in Sindhi.