Annotated Bibliography on MacbethGet Your
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Curtis Turner Mr. Doyle Eng 4th January 19 2010 Annotated bibliography Wells, Catherine. www. sff. net. Special Libraries Association. Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers Association. (2007). 19 January 2010. Macbeths father was Findlaech, the Mormaer of Moray, and his grandfather was Ruadhri. In 1020, Findlaech was challenged for rule of Moray by his two nephews, Malcolm and Gillecomgain, and killed. Malcolm then became ruler in Findlaech’s place. Macbeth would have been 15 at the time, and quite possibly in fosterage somewhere outside of Inverness, the capital of Moray.
It was the common practice of nobles to have their sons fostered from age 7 to age 17, the “age of choice. ” Macbeth returned to his home upon turning 17, there to gain practical experience both in the art of war and the management of his family’s assets: cattle, sheep, and grain. Whatever the circumstances, Duncan went up against Macbeth and lost. Duncan was buried with previous kings on the sacred Isle of Iona. Macbeth was now the biggest dog on the hill, and he rode to the capital city of Scone to claim the high kingship for himself. Ellis, Peter Berresford ehistory. su. edu- MacBeth- Barnes & Noble Books- New York, (1993) 19 January 2010. He was born in 1005 at Alba, Scotland and died on August 15th 1057 at Lumphanan-in-Mar, Scotland. He is considered by historians as the last of the galic kings of Scotland, but has become less of a historical figure and more of a fictional character, ultimately by William Shakespeare. He was born the same year as his grandfather Malcolm the 2nd became king. At the age of seven MacBeth was sent away to be educated The term of study usually lasted about ten years.
In 1020, at age fifteen, his cousins Malcolm and Gillecomgain killed MacBeth’s father. The reason escaped history, but it could have been that Findlaech MacRuaridh had established a warm relationship with the House of Atholl. As for MacBeth, not much is known about him at this time, it is possible he was far away in his studies Bingham, Caroline www. 4scots. us. Clan Donnachaidh Society of Florida. March,30 2007. January 19 2010. On the death of Malcolm II, the House of Alpin failed in the male line.
Malcolm had two daughters, and the only surviving descendant of his cousin and immediate predecessor Kenneth III was a grand-daughter. King Malcolm’s grandsons and King Kenneth’s grand-daughter were the leading characters in the drama with which the history of the new dynasty opened. Malcolm’s elder daughter Bethoc married Crinan “the Thane”, lay abbot of Dunkeld. At this period, when Celtic monasticism was in decline, lay abbots appear to have been as accepted a part of the ecclesiastical structure as they became centuries later on the eve of the Reformation.
Crinan was a great nobleman, as his title implies, and he possessed the added prestige of belonging to the kindred of St. Columba. It was from his abbacy of Dunkeld that the new royal House took its name, for Crinan and Bethoc were the parents of King Duncan I. Malcolm’s younger daughter, whose name may have been Donada, married Finlaech, Mormaer of Moray (Mormaer was a Celtic title which appears to have been the equivalent of Thane or Earl), and they were the parents of Macbeth, who was therefore Duncan’s first cousin.
His name was in fact ‘Maelbeatha’, though it would be somewhat pedantic to revert to it. Macbeth married Kenneth III’s grand-daughter Gruoch, the original of Shakespeare’s Lady Macbeth. Gruoch had been previously married to Gillicomgan, Mormaer of Moray, a cousin of Macbeth’s father Finlaech. By her first marriage she had a son named Lulach. The events in which Duncan, Macbeth and Gruoch took part were different in emphasis and timing from the familiar events of Shakespeare’s tragedy. Duncan was quite young, probably about thirty-three, when he succeeded his grandfather.
At the time of his death in 1040 his two sons, Malcolm and Donald Ban (or Donalbain), were small children. Macbeth, who was slightly younger than his cousin the King, had, according to the rule of tanistry, an equally good claim to the throne by right of birth, though Duncan had apparently succeeded as their grandfather’s chosen heir. In 1040 Macbeth asserted his claim by force of arms, slew Duncan in battle and made himself king. There is no knowing whether Gruoch’s influence played any part in these events.
She and Macbeth had no children, but it is likely that as the years passed, she may have become anxious to see her son Lulach accepted as his stepfather’s heir. Duncan’s Queen had been a kinswoman of Siward, the Danish Earl who governed northern England under Edward the Confessor. Upon Duncan’s death his elder son Malcolm was sent for safety to Siward’s Court at York, and subsequently went to the Court of the English king; the younger son Donald Ban was sent to the Western Isles, and then possibly to Ireland.
The ‘separated fortune’ of the brothers, to which Shakespeare referred, was to lead to separate interests and ultimately to their bitter enmity. Meanwhile, Macbeth consolidated his triumph by defeating and slaying Duncan’s father, Crinan, in a battle at Dunkeld in 1045. Bloodshed, if not murder, had made him king, but he ruled successfully for seventeen years. He was an outstanding benefactor of the Church, and his rule was strong enough to permit his making a pilgrimage to Rome in 1050, where it was recorded that he “scattered money among the poor like seed”.
Macbeth appeared to be liberal and secure, but he had an enemy whom the years could only make more dangerous. In 1054 Malcolm, with the assistance of his kinsman Siward, invaded Scotland, defeated Macbeth at Scone and wrested Lothian and Cumbria from him. (The name Cumbria was now given to the whole area which had previously been the kingdom of Strathclyde. ) Three years later Malcolm invaded again and completed his victory when he defeated and slew Macbeth at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire, in 1057. Malcolm still had Lulach to deal with.
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Lulach was called “the Simple”, so possible it is permissible to see the influence of Gruoch behind his coronation at Scone immediately upon the death of his stepfather. But early the following year Malcolm slew him, it was said, “by strategy”. At the end of Shakespeare’s play Malcolm, on his way to his coronation at Scone, refers to Macbeth and his wife with pious horror as ‘this dead butcher and his fiend-like Queen’, but perhaps when Malcolm became King of Scots, his had were no less bloodstained than Macbeth’s
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Annotated Bibliography on Macbeth
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Annotated Bibliography of Macbeth Criticism
- Adelman, Janet. "'Born of Woman': Fantasies of Maternal Power in Macbeth." 1987.
- Topic: The play as symbolic of the struggle between masculine and feminine identity.
- Bartholomeusz, Dennis. Macbeth and the Players. 1969.
- Topic: Actors' interpretations of the parts of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
- Berger, Harry, Jr. "The Early Scenes of Macbeth." 1980.
- Topic: Contrarian view of King Duncan and the health of the Scottish body politic.
- Blissett, William. "The Secret'st Man of Blood." 1959.
- Topics: Dramatic irony. Motifs of "air, blood, seed, and time."
- Booth, Stephen. "Macbeth, Aristotle, Definition, and Tragedy." 1983.
- Topics: Tragedy, Macbeth.
- Bradley, A. C. Shakespearean Tragedy. 1905.
- Topics: Atmosphere, the Witches, character analysis.
- Brooks, Cleanth. "The Naked Babe and the Cloak of Manliness." 1947.
- Topics: Metaphors in Macbeth.
- Calderwood, James L. Macbeth and Tragic Action. 1986.
- Topics: Avant-garde theories about Macbeth.
- Driver, Tom F. "The Uses of Time: Oedipus Tyrannus and Macbeth." 1960.
- Topic: Macbeth v. Time.
- Elliott, G. R. Dramatic Providence in Macbeth. 1960.
- Topic: A Christian approach to Macbeth.
- Everett, Barbara. "Macbeth: Succeeding." 1989.
- Topic: The failure of Macbeth's success.
- Felperin, Howard. Shakespearean Representation. 1977.
- Topic: The modernity of Macbeth.
- Fergusson, Francis. "Macbeth as the Imitation of an Action." 1952.
- Topic: Macbeth as "the imitation of an action . . . which may be indicated by the phrase 'to outrun the pauser, reason'."
- Foakes, R. A. "Images of death: ambition in Macbeth." 1982.
- Topic: Macbeth's ambition.
- Frye, Northrop. Fools of Time: Studies in Shakespearean Tragedy. 1967.
- Topic: The nature of tragedy, kinds of tragedy.
- Gardner, Helen. "Milton's 'Satan' and The Theme of Damnation in Elizabethan Tragedy." 1948.
- Topic: "the deforming of a creature in its origin bright and good, by its own willed persistence in acts against its own nature"
- Gohlke, Madelon. "'I wooed thee with my sword': Shakespeare's Tragic Paradigms." 1980.
- Topic: Feminine values in Macbeth.
- Goldberg, Jonathan. "Speculations: Macbeth and source." 1987.
- Topic: Deconstructionist speculations.
- Goldman, Michael. "Speaking Evil: Language and Action in Macbeth." 1985.
- Topic: Macbeth's psyche.
- Greenblatt, Stephen. "Shakespeare Bewitched." 1993.
- Topic: Shakespeare's treatment of the Witches.
- Heilman, Robert B. "The Criminal as Tragic Hero: Dramatic Methods." 1966.
- Topic: The problem of how or whether the audience identifies with Macbeth.
- Holloway, John. The Story of the Night. 1961.
- Topic: Revolt v. Providence.
- Hopkins, Lisa. The Shakespearean Marriage. 1998.
- Topic: Feminist view of Shakespeare's portrayal of marriage.
- Hunter, Robert. Shakespeare and the Mystery of God's Judgments. 1976.
- Topic: Macbeth in light of Christian theories about damnation.
- Jorgensen, Paul. Our Naked Frailties:
- Sensational Art and Meaning in Macbeth. 1971.
- Topic: The sources of the emotional effect of Macbeth.
- Kahn, Coppélia. "The Milking Babe and the Bloody Man in Coriolanus and Macbeth." 1981.
- Topic: Macbeth's manliness.
- Kimbrough, Robert. "Macbeth: The Prisoner of Gender." 1983.
- Topic: "the personal and social destructiveness of polarized masculinity and femininity"
- Kirsch, Arthur. The Passions of Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes. 1990.
- Topic: The truth to life of Macbeth's character.
- Knights, L. C. "How Many Children Had Lady Macbeth?" 1933.
- Topic: "How should we read Shakespeare?"
- Mack, Maynard. "The Many Faces of Macbeth." 1993.
- Topic: Various observations about the play.
- Mack, Maynard Jr. "The Voice in the Sword." 1973.
- Topic: The meaning of kingship.
- McAlindon, T. Shakespeare's tragic cosmos. 1991.
- Topic: Various themes in Macbeth.
- McElroy, Bernard. "Macbeth: The Torture of the Mind." 1973.
- Topic: Macbeth as a tragic hero who is repulsed by his own criminality.
- Moretti, Franco. "'A Huge Eclipse': Tragic Form and the Deconsecration of Sovereignty." 1982.
- Topic: The historical consequences of the tragic form.
- Muir, Kenneth. Shakespeare: The Great Tragedies. 1966.
- Topic: Various.
- Mullaney, Steven. The Place of the Stage 1988.
- Topic: "the negotiation and production of social meaning"
- Murray, J. Middleton. "The Time Has Been." 1936.
- Topic: The effect of their crime on Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
- Norbrook, David. "Macbeth and the Politics of Historiography." 1987.
- Topic: Relationship between Macbeth and political ideologies of Shakespeare's time.
- Paul, Henry N. "The Royal Play of Macbeth. 1950.
- Topic: The influence of King James on the writing of Macbeth.
- Rosen, Michael. Shakespeare and the Craft of Tragedy. 1964.
- Topics: The audience's reaction to Macbeth's character.
- Rosenberg, Marvin. The Masks of Macbeth. 1978.
- Topics: All the different ways that Macbeth has been viewed by critics and played on stage.
- Sanders, Wilbur. The Dramatist and the Received Idea. 1968.
- Topic: Shakespeare's philosophical complexity.
- Sewell, Arthur. Character and Society in Shakespeare. 1951.
- Topic: Macbeth as a sociopath.
- Sinfield, Alan. "Macbeth: history, ideology, and intellectuals." 1986.
- Topic: "Oppositional analysis" of the play's political implications.
- Spender, Stephen. "Time, Violence, and Macbeth." 1941.
- Topic: The theme of time in Macbeth.
- Spurgeon, Caroline. "Shakespeare's Imagery in Macbeth." 1935.
- Topic: Imagery, particularly the images of Macbeth's clothes.
- Stallybrass, Peter. "Macbeth and witchcraft." 1982.
- Topic: Witchcraft as a patriarchal construct.
- Stirling, Brents. "'Look, how our partner's rapt'." 1956.
- Topic: Themes of "darkness, sleep, raptness, and contradiction."
- Waith, Eugene M. "Manhood and Valor in Macbeth." 1950.
- Topic: Moral and humane manhood v. manhood as simple valor.
- Wells, Stanley. "A Scottish Tragedy: Macbeth." 1994.
- Topic: General introduction.
- Whitaker, Virgil K. The Mirror up to Nature: The Technique of Shakespeare's Tragedies. 1965.
- Topic: Christian interpretation.
- Willbern, David. "Phantasmagoric Macbeth." 1986.
- Topic: Psychoanalytic interpretation.
- Williams, Raymond. "Monologue in Macbeth." 1983.
- Topic: Types of soliloquies and monologues.
- Wilson, Harold S. On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy. 1957.
- Topics: Tragedy, Macbeth's character.